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International Edition Winners - 2013: Venezuela, Grade: 9-12

International Edition Winners - 2013: Venezuela, Grade: 9-12

The Big Bang Theory Explorers
Target 1, Iapetus
Team: Big Bang Theory Explorers

Grade: 9-12

Team leaders: Christian Barrera, Nestor Bohorquez, Andrea Fajardo, Ernesto Gomez, Ines Monteverde, Arturo Negrette, Jesus Perozo, and Nay Valbuena.

Team members: Estefany Angulo, Lermith Biarreta, Maria Frnda Biarreta, Miguel Bohorquez, Emanuel Caridad, Josue Castro, Yirrel Castro, Jonar Cubillan, Luis Manuel Garcia Teran, Maria Jose Garcia Teran, Armando Gutierrez, Aria Matos, Gabriel Moreno, Diego Nava, Sath Peraza, Barath Peraza, Jose Vallejo, and Manuel Villalobos.

Schools: Liceo Los Robles, Altamira, Apamates, Nay Valbuena, Urbe San Onofre, Luz, Feliciano Palacios, Feliciano Palacios Luz, Los Robles URU, Unefa, Santa Mariana de Jesus

Schools: Liceo Los Robles, Altamira, Apamates, Merici, Urbe San Onofre, Luz, Feliciano Palacios, Luz, Unefa, Santa Mariana de Jesu

Teachers: Adan Rincon, Alexis Mavarez, Lucia Rojas, Luis Gomez, Carlos Avila, Roger Morton, Mercedes del Castillo, Euro Carruyo, Heinor Berrio, Jesus Adan Rincon, Jesus Perozo, Joan Castro, Douglas Mendez, Jorge Aldana, Jose Luis Aponte, Leonides Portillo, Nelson Portillo, Omar Barilla, Pedro Medina, Ramon Azuaje, Jose Morales, Venancio Morales, Jondri, and Rafael Morales.


"We as a group thought that Iapetus is the best target for photographic investigations assisted by Cassinis instruments based in a few curious aspects that called our attention because its own particular characteristics, such the moon’s form, location, aspect and geological history wich indicate there might be amazing forces in action.

The origin of Iapetus’s dark zone (Cassini Regio) and its ecuador (toledo Montes) according to the apparent exogen origin of the dark dust Iapetus in its past attracts our attention because we read it could be due to this moons orbit close to saturn wich provides it with posible thermonuclear activity plus the fact that its inclination was alredy present. This thermonuclear activity posibly made possible that its surface was more exposed to the gravitational activity of its own speed rotation faster compared to the actual speed rotation posses so in theory also its approximation to the rings and the gravitational attraccion that these could cause to the surface might explain the formation of the Himalaya on its own curious ecuatorial location.

We read a theory that in a distant past the closeness of iapetus to saturn and its outer ring caused its surface plus the possible its own gravitational activity that could cause it thanks to its posible active core wich allows to add particules from saturn’s rings. About the dark dust, we read that Iapetus’s past closer orbit to saturn could made possible a collition with any other defunct moons as well to other any other kind of celestial body, this impact might have caused the estrangement of its orbit; we read that in its possible original orbit the moon lost its atmosphere activity allowing the settlement of particles from a possible past impact in one specific region, giving way to the known dark zone. the descent of the surface’s temperature gave way to the solidification of Toledo Montes . It is possible the dark dust was in the moon previous to the shining regions suggesting that the last, is a criogenisation process in the dust not been completely covered maybe for the termic segregation phenomenon present in the dark dust, giving way to the “black spots” in the bright region .

To analyze the “black spots” we suggest using photography combined with (CIRS) to know the temperature and composition, proving the thermic segregation process in the bright region , allowing to recreate 3D map of Iapetus to study the structure of Toledo Montes.

Combinig photography with (VIMS) we could study and analyze the nature of the particules that form the Toledo Montes.

And combining with (RADAR) we could create better detailed maps of Iapetus’s surface. We really like it for both reasons: its craters and its quality of black and white colors that make it look like the Death Star from Star Wars.

In the seventeenth century, Giovanni Cassini observed that Iapetus could be seen when it was on one side of Saturn but not the other. He concluded that one of its hemispheres was darker than the other, which was then confirmed through images thanks to Voyager 1 (1981), and Cassini/Huygens closest approach on Sept. 10, 2007.

Combining photography with Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) to observe the differentiation of the hemispheres, the Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) for spectrographic and scanning profile of the composition of the surface and have unprecedented coverage that would allow dark material thickness and composition studies.

The dark region is called Cassini Regio and the clear region Roncevaux Terra.

We read 2 theories:

1. External origin: suggests that the dark material is not Iapetus origin and that it comes from another moon of Saturn that received a strong impact of a huge meteorite and this material was expelled to Iapetus.

2. Internal origin: proposes that the dark material comes from within and surfaced through a combination of meteoric impact and cryo-volcanism. It has also been suggested that the dark regions may be areas without water.

The equatorial ridge of Iapetus is another photographic aspect; discovered by Cassini/Huygens. Its range is 20 kilometers wide and 13 high, and stretches 1300 kilometers from the dark side. The reason behind this formation would be another photographic target. We read several theories.
• It could be remnant of spheroid shape Iapetus in the beginning, when it rotated faster.
• It is composed of a liquid that emanated from sources below the surface and then solidified.
• Might have had its origin in the distant past, when Iapetus would have touched the outermost portion of the rings of Saturn and consumed part of its materials.
• It could be the result of the impact of an Iapetus debris ring created from a sub – satellite rupture that orbited this moon."