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International Edition Winners - 2013: Pakistan, Target 2, Grade 11-12

International Edition Winners - 2013: Pakistan, Target 2, Grade 11-12

Tayyaba Shahzad
Target 2, Dione
Tayyaba Shahzad

School: Army Public School & College, Humayun Road
Grade: 11
City: Rawalpindi

"Dione is the most intriguing heavenly body in three of them It is the fourth nearest moon and twelfth one to be discovered Dione has a synchronous orbit. There are cratered areas on trailing hemisphere and largest crater is named as Amata. A scientist is interested in facts and figures of the body and its outcomes. Dione is a fascinating with its controversial features.

Dione has some bright wispy streaks whose origin is not confirmed. Streak overlay many of the craters which indicates that they are newer. The bright walls are bright because dark material falls off them, exposing bright water ice. It may have been formed by eruption through crakes in surface or dione may have experienced some tectonic activity. It is possible that Dione's surface is continually coated by new ice particles deposited by E-ring (substance ice melting and resurfacing).

The atmosphere of Dione is known as exosphere because of wispy oxygen atmosphere. Solar photons or high energy particles bombard with the icy surface of the moon which release oxygen ions. Dione is composed of water ice and ultra thin layer of oxygen, the two pre-requisites of life. Through oxygen is trillions times less than the oxygen present on earth but oxygen is the symbol of life. The process of evolution is continuous and may be responsible for existence of creatures on a completely uninhabited heavenly body.

Moreover, the asymmetry of the moon is not well understood. There is a evidence of major impact near center of linear network on trailing hemisphere. Dione is involved in orbital resonance i.e its trip around Saturn is twice that of moon escalades. This relationship has been proposed as a source of dramatic tidal heating seen in Enceladus but details of mechanism has not been worked out.

Slushy liquid layer might exist beneath its icy crust as well as ancient, inactive fractures that now spew water ice and carbon containing particles. Since it has not been active as escalades so it may have been experienced stronger gravitational forces or more radioactive heating in core. Its appearance is intriguing with crates, rocky material and icy powder. It may once have geologically active subsurface ocean.

Dione has a connection with the E-rings of Saturn. The icy powder is the result of the bombardment with the dust of rings. If Cassini would be able to capture only one picture then it would be Dione because it will provide most important information. Dione and its complex and distinct features invite the scientists to research about its shape, atmosphere, craters, water ice, collaboration with ring of Saturn and its geological characteristics."