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International Edition Winners 2011: Pakistan, Target 3, 5-6

International Edition Winners 2011: Pakistan, Target 3, 5-6

Nimra Khalid
Titan and Tethys
Nimra Khalid

6th Grade
Army Public School & College
Sargodha, Pakistan

" Since I am out of infancy, I have been keenly interested in astronomy and always thought to be mission scientist of Saturn because its colorful rings have been fascinating and mesmerizing
me. Saturn is named after roman god satrunus. In Roman mythology, Saturn is the god of agriculture. Saturn h~5 been known since prehistoric times. Galileo was the first astronomer to observe it with a telescope in 1610. He noted its odd appearance but was confused by ft. Early observations of Saturn were complicated by the fact that the Earth passes through the plane of Saturn's nAgS every few years as Saturn moves in its orbit. 111

The rings of Saturn are the most extensive planetary ring system of any planet in the Solar System. Although reflection from the rings increases Saturn's brightness, they are not visible from Earth with naked eyes. In 1610, after Galileo first turned a telescope to the sky, he could not see them well enough to differentiate their true nature. In 1655, Christian Huygens was the first person to describe them as a disk surrounding Saturn. They contain countless small particles, ranging in size from micro meters to meters that form cluster that in turn orbit about Saturn. The ring particles are made almost completely of water ice with some contamination of dust and other chemicals. These rings contain many perplexed mystery and ambiguity inside them. Saturn has at least 61 moons. Saturn is one of the most beautiful planets in our solar system.

Saturn comes second after Jupiter. It is so gigantic and so large that 74 earth-sized planets can be accommodated into it. Scientists since the time of its discovery are puzzled of the origin of these rings. Researchers are of the view that other planets and moons might bear rings. If I had a chance to approach observatory, I would like to observe Saturn and its rings for following reasons.

1. To discover new rings in addition to existing ones.
2. 16 discover new moons of Saturn.
3. Unearthing the composition of the rings.
4. To determine the age and life history of Saturn
5. To explore why life exists on earth, why not on Saturn and other planets of our solar system.
6. To unfold the mysteries attached to multi-coloured rings
7. To dig out the particles caused composition of Enceladus, a satellite of Saturn.
8. To determine how Enceladus, satellite of Saturn, contributes to the extremely wide and outermost ring, the ring.
9. Study the rings for new moonlets.

Following items will be required to achieve above-mentioned goals.

1. Cassini plasma spectrometer will be required to find plasma in the Saturn's magnetic field.
2. Composite infrared spectrometer. It is helpful to find the temperature at various belts of rings and the composition at different places.
3. I shall be in need of Cosmo dust analyzer. It would help me to find the source of ice in the E-ring, if it is coming from Enceladus.
4. Last but not least, Ultraviolet imaging spectrometer should also be in possession as it is helpful to know the structure and chemistry of rings of Saturn.

My study may further help nasa's astronomer and others in me world to study the Saturn from different angle to discover new features which are hidden Of our naked eyes."